The Sardinians of the flourishing nuraghic civilization

The Sardinians of the flourishing nuraghic civilization
The nuraghic civilization began developping in Sardinia around the XVIII century B.C., during the Bronze Age. It takes the name from the nuragh,  the typical tower construction, which characterized our island. 
Beyond the megalithic constructions and the many finds found in the whole island, of that period there aren't traces of writings. We don't know how they communicated but certainly they knew how to work very good metals metals,  particularly the bronze.

Many are the artefacts found in the archaeological sites, mostly of them tresured in the most important museums of Sardinia: the most famous are the small bronzes, little statues representing deities or monstrous beings, the most important personalities of single tribes, warriors, men and women, who offer gifts to divinities to thanks them for having granted their whishes or asking them help in some particular situations; various are also the examples of animals or wherries, these last ones have been used as lanterns.

Back around the half of the III millennium B.C., the Sardinian people felt the necessity of building villages in commanding positions, for example on the top of hills, from which they could control the surrounding area.

With the passage of time, boundary walls and watch-towers were erected. The following step was that of the nuragh, which, at first, didn't have its mostly known shape, that of the tower “a tholos”: It was squater and lower, devoid of central rooms and subdivided in passages, but it was also ampler.

The universally known nuragh is that “a tholos”, which appeared around the XVI century B.C. : it's a megalithic construction realized with courses of square blocks (overlapping without the use of cementic substances), which get smaller from the basement to the top.

Nuraghs have the shape of truncated cones, whose function has not been accuracy discovered yet: at the biginning it was thought that thy had a simple function of defence, but some scholars have remembered that, in that period the foreign peoples weren't already arrived in Sardinia. It is thought that they were used for distinguishing and bordering the areas of the different tribes or federation of tribes: in the principal towers met leaders and priests, and the rooms next door were adapted to a religious use.

In Sardinia there are about 7.000 censused nuraghs, partly to bring to light, they are still recovered of earth, detritus and vagetation.

From a simple tower, in some localities, they passed to the more elaborated structures, with a central tower (called stronghold) connected with other towers ( lobi), all surrounded with high defence walls. Generally, the aperture on the top was closed with a slab of rock. In many cases it was possible to gain access to the top from inside, through heilicodal stairs made with square blocks.

Outside there were woody stairs or appropriate grooves between the walls. Sometimes secondary rooms were reached through tunnels.

The most massive nuraghs were built on three levels: that is the reason why they reached also 20 meters of high.
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